Useful resources: refractive error
ICEE Global Resource Centre. The International Centre for Eyecare Educations Global Resource Centre provides low-cost spectacles, frames, lenses, and low vision aids to organisations working in disadvantaged communities. Prices start from US $1.00 for a spectacle frame. Visit www.iceegrc.org, email firstname.lastname@example.org or write to ICEE Global Resource Centre, 272 Umbilo road, Durban 4001, South Africa.
VISION 2020 Low Vision Resource Centre. The centre provides low vision devices and assessment materials at low cost. Write to The Low Vision Resource Centre, 2nd Floor, East Wing, Headquarters Building, 248 Nam Cheong Street, Shamshuipo, Kowloon, Hong Kong, email email@example.com or visit http://www.hksb.org.hk/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=41&Itemid=35
The International Centre for Eyecare Education (ICEE). Look in Publications on the website for free ICEE research articles on a range of topics. www.icee.org
The ScoJo Foundation. The ScoJo Foundation improves access to reading spectacles in low- and middle-income countries by training and equipping local entrepreneurs to establish businesses that sell these spectacles. www.scojofoundation.org
Mayer S. Refraction training course manual. Available from the International Centre for Eye Health. UK £5 plus post and packing.
Schwab L. Eye care in developing nations. 4th ed. Manson Publishing, 2007 (Chapter 13: Refractive Errors). Available from the International Centre for Eye Health. UK £12 plus post and packing.
WHO. Elimination of avoidable visual disability due to refractive errors. Geneva, 2000. Available from WHO or online at www.who.int/ncd/vision2020_actionplan/documents/WHO_PBL_00.79.pdf
Bourne RRA, Dineen BP, Ali SM, Noorul Huq DM, Johnson GJ. Prevalence of refractive error in Bangladeshi adults. Ophthalmol 2004;111: 1150-1160.
Bourne RRA, Dineen BP, Ali SM, Noorul Huq DM, Johnson GJ. Correction of refractive error in the adult population of Bangladesh: meeting the unmet need. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004;45: 410-417.
Chou S, Misajon R, Gallo J, Keeffe JE. Measurement of indirect costs for people with vision Impairment. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2003;31: 336-340.
Dandona R, Dandona L, Srinivas M, Sahare P, Narsaiah S, Muñoz SR, Pokharel GP, Ellwein LB. Refractive error in children in a rural population in India. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43: 615-622.
Du Toit R. How to prescribe spectacles for presbyopia. Community Eye Health J 2006;19(57): 12-13.
Limburg H, Kansara HT, D’Souza S. Results of school eye screening of 5.4 million children in India – a five-year follow-up study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1999;77: 310-4.
Maul E, Barroso S, Muñoz SR, Sperduto RD, Ellwein LB. Refractive error study in children: results from La Florida, Chile. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;129: 445-454.
Négrel AD, Maul E, Pokharel GP, Zhao J, Ellwein LB. Refractive error study in children: sampling and measurement methods for a multi-country survey. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;129(4):421-6.
Nottle HR, McCarty CA, Hassell JB, Keeffe JE. Detection of vision impairment in people admitted to aged care assessment centres. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2000;28(3): 162-4.
Dandona R and Dandona L. Refractive error blindness. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2001, 79: 237243. www.who.int/ncd/vision2020_actionplan/documents/vol79.no.3.237-243.pdf
Wedner SH, Ross DA, Todd J, Anemona A, Balira R, Foster A. Myopia in secondary school students in Mwanza City, Tanzania: the need for a national screening programme. Br J Ophthalmol 2002;86: 1200-1206.
Wedner SH, Ross D, Balirab R, Kajic L, Foster A. Prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children in a rural area of Tanzania. Br J Ophthalmol 2000;84: 1291-1297.
Zhao J, Pan X, Sui R, Muñoz SR, Sperduto RD, Ellwein LB. Refractive error study in children: results from Shunyi District, China. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;129: 427-435.
Community Eye Health Journal back issues
Volume 13, Issue 33, 2000 Refractive errors
Volume 15, Issue 43, 2002 The role of optometry in VISION 2020
International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK. Fax: +44 20 7958 8325.
WHO: World Health Organization, WHO Press, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org